Monthly Archives: September 2013

Responsive Design in Email, Part 2: Edge Reflow

Edge Reflow graphic

Update: On November 30, 2015, Adobe announced that they would be discontinuing the development of Edge Reflow, along with all the other Edge tools. Most of the features of Reflow have already been incorporated into Dreamweaver.

In last week’s article, we talked about the pros and cons of using responsive design in your emails. In response to the increased interest in responsive design, Adobe recently introduced Edge Reflow, a program designed to simplify the process of creating responsive designs. With Edge Reflow, you can create as many size-based variations on a web page as you want. Most of the formatting information goes into the separate CSS file, which you will then need to add to the head in your email. If you are using Adobe Creative Cloud, the program is available for download now. The program is still in beta, so it’s possible that some of the problems I discuss here will be addressed before the final release. It was originally scheduled to be released in July, but that deadline has come and gone, suggesting that Adobe recognizes that the program is still not ready for prime time.

In Edge Reflow, you draw boxes, place images, and create text boxes as separate elements on a default field. A resizing handle on the right lets you see what happens to your design when you reduce the size of the viewing platform. You can then reorganize the information in your design for different widths. For instance, you may want to set the default version of the file to a width of 900 pixels, and then create a version for viewing on a phone that is set to start displaying at 425 pixels. You can drag the various elements to different positions, change their float attributes, and hide them when necessary.

3 views of responsive design

With this file, the text and graphics were moved into a stacked position for the tablet view, and then the images were hidden for the phone view.

It sounds easy enough, but the sad truth is that, when it comes to email design, Edge Reflow offers few, if any, advantages over coding the email yourself. It has some nice features, but it’s worth mentioning the 800-pound gorilla in the room: Edge Reflow will not open HTML documents; only its own Reflow (.rflw) files. If you want to experiment with existing designs in Reflow, you have to recreate them from scratch. Nor does Reflow directly give you the option to save or export the files you create as HTML formatted files. To do so, you have to choose “Preview in Chrome” from the View menu and then it will either open in Chrome, or open the folder containing the HTML and CSS files. You can open these up in Dreamweaver and modify them, but there is no way to import those changes back into Reflow.

In an attempt to improve Reflow’s compatibility and usefulness, Adobe recently added a feature to Photoshop CC that lets you generate a Reflow file in Photoshop. This has some interesting aspects, such as the ability to keep any text layers you’ve added in Photoshop file as editable elements. This is a welcome addition, but it doesn’t address the real problem, which is that you are never working with your actual HTML document. During our tests, it became apparent that to use this feature you have to start from a predefined approach that may not be compatible with your previous designs. In our tests, we found very little advantage to using this feature. Your results may vary.

Edge Code

As part of the Edge gallery of programs, Reflow was primarily intended for use with Edge Code—a repackaged version of Adobe’s free HTML editor, Brackets. Edge Code has the features, such as color coding, that we’ve come to expect from HTML editors, but it is a bare bones affair. Notepad++ (on the PC) and TextWrangler (on the Mac) offer more features, and they are also free. As with Reflow, previewing files from Edge Code requires the Chrome browser to view the final results. Other programs in the Edge line include Edge Animate (just what it sounds like), and Edge Inspect, which is primarily intended to view web pages on various devices before publishing them (of little use for email marketing since you must still send the files to various email clients to see how they handle them).

What You See is NOT What You Get

For now, according to Adobe, only Chrome displays Edge Reflow’s responsive features to their full potential. Opening the same file in Firefox or IE can often lead to entirely different results. On one level, this is understandable. Some aspects of Reflow may not work as well in the other browsers, but this is the least of your worries when it comes to creating email. How well various browsers handle responsive design is less important than how well the various email clients and devices respond to the code. Like Dreamweaver, Edge Reflow was intended to help create responsive web pages, not email. Media queries and other style attributes are automatically saved to a separate CSS file. Before you can use these attributes in your mailing, you’ll need to transfer them to the head section of the email. Unfortunately, it is not possible to insert this information inline, so media queries are only usable with email clients that use the head information. [See last week’s article for information on which email clients are compatible with head tag information.]

When you are finished designing your email with Reflow, and have saved to preview in Chrome, you should end up with four files:

  • page1.html
  • Project_Previewer.html
  • page1.css
  • boilerplate.css

“Project_Previewer.html” is intended for use with multiple page constructions and can be ignored or deleted if you are working on an email design. “Page1.html” is the actual HTML you’ve created in Reflow, and “page1.css” is the style information for that page. “Boilerplate.css” contains several master style elements that may be important to your final results.

You can copy the CSS and place it between Style Tags in the email head, but this isn’t advisable. Not every email client uses the head tag information. You’re still going to have to convert all the CSS except the media queries to inline styles if you want your email to look good in as many email clients as possible. Once all of this information has been converted to inline styles and the media queries have been added to the head, you’ll need to send out test emails to various email clients and look at the results on various devices. Your design may look perfect in Edge Reflow and then fall apart completely when it’s transferred to your email marketing software. Similarly, it may look fine in your email marketing software and come out completely wrong in certain email clients, so testing across as many clients and devices as possible isn’t just a good idea—it’s absolutely necessary.

Gmail & Thunderbird comparison

Here is the same email in two different email viewers. On the left, Gmail strips out the header information so all the formatting is lost. On the right, the same email appears as it was intended in Thunderbird. Inlining the style information will solve this problem.

Form Follows Features

If you want to use responsive design, Edge Reflow might help you sketch out an idea, but it is not a complete solution. It is also very email-unfriendly. Although you can use tables in responsive design, Reflow provides no easy way to do so. Not to mention the fact that you still have a fair amount of work to do to prepare your final files for mailing. I do want to stress once more that Edge Reflow is still in beta testing, so everything I’ve said here may be negated by the time it is finally released. I certainly hope so, but I’m not holding my breath.

However you decide to tackle responsive design, it is important to make sure that your design is flexible enough to be easily read on as many devices as possible. Until all email clients—and especially Gmail and AOL—accept head tag information, email containing responsive design information must be readable and visually appealing under all circumstances. In our next post, we’ll look at how to do this, by combining media queries with inline information to create the most compatible email possible.

Next Time: Handling Media Queries in HTML.

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Responsive Design in Email, Part 1: An Overview

How am I supposed to read that?!!

The hottest topic of discussion in the email marketing field right now is that of responsive design. Responsive design means that email changes its appearance if the viewing device falls within certain size ranges. For instance, suppose you have an email that features three columns of information in 12 pt type. It may look perfect on a desktop, but open the same email on a smart phone and suddenly that 12 pt type is reduced to three pt type and is virtually unreadable. Of course, the reader can always double-tap or pinch-out (zoom) to expand the text to a legible size, but asking your readers to do anything is always a dangerous proposition. It’s always best if the reader doesn’t have to do anything to receive your message and you make it as easy as possible for them to respond to the Calls to Action.

There’s no question that responsive design can help with this. It will automatically format your email according to the parameters you’ve set ahead of time and display the email in the optimal format. When used carefully, responsive design can help improve recipient response. So wouldn’t you always want to use it? Well, maybe not. As with most aspects of email marketing, there’s more to the story than meets the eye.

Talk is Cheap

A quick search of the keyphrase “responsive design email” turns up lots of posts that tell you the advantages of using responsive design in your email. Not one of these posts, however, gives us much useful information on how to do it. “Use @media queries” is the standard mantra, without a shred of information on how to do so. It’s probably not a coincidence that several of the emails I’ve received from the companies that are posting about the advantages of responsive are not using it in their own emails.

One recent blog post states that “adopting responsive design to your website and digital communications isn’t difficult.” It may not be difficult compared to building the space shuttle or performing brain surgery, but when it comes to creating email, responsive design adds considerable complexity to the process. For this reason, some ESPs now offer responsive templates. That’s fine as long as you don’t plan to exert much control over the appearance of your mailings. A few are beginning to offer tools for dealing with responsive design, but even here, much of your control over the design is lost to pre-coded sections of their choosing. If you want your email to have completely unique characteristics, you’ll still have to handle the coding yourself.

Media Queries

As I mentioned earlier, the secret behind responsive design is a feature of CSS called media queries. A media query looks something like this:

@media only screen and (max-width: 425px) {

#image2 {

display: none;


In the example above, the image designated as “image2” disappears when the width of the display is 425 pixels or less. Media queries let you control virtually every element on a page. You can change the fonts sizes, the positions of the images, whether or not an image will appear at all below a certain size, and much more. As one might imagine, this kind of power comes at a cost, and not without a few caveats.

Design and Design Again

Creating a responsive email means first designing a page, and then designing it again…and again. If you want to optimize your email display for several different platforms, you’ll have to adjust the design for each one accordingly. Sometimes, this means little more than adjusting the font size and moving some images around, but if you’re not careful, you can spend a lot of time trying to get the email to behave in all situations and the next thing you know, you have six different size settings in your styles. Responsive design can be very finicky about things such as position, sizing, and which units of measurement you choose to use. Like all code writing, it is also unforgiving when it comes to spellings and matching up brackets. Multiply this by how many different versions you decide to create and you can see where things can get complicated fast.

Once you’ve created your responsive design, you’ll need to test it across various devices. Here’s where things get tricky. Your design may look great when you view it as a stand-alone file in Chrome, but suddenly all its features fly out the window when you look at the same HTML with the same browser in Gmail. Congratulations! You’ve just discovered the main problem with using responsive design—the issue of head tag information.

What’s in Your Head

The biggest limitation to using media queries in email comes from the fact that media queries cannot be inserted inline. To take advantage of media queries, you need to include head tags in your HTML. All well and good, except that many email clients are going to ignore your head tags and replace them with their own information. Suddenly all those carefully constructed formats are gone, leaving your email looking more generic than ever. To complicate matters further, this will vary depending on the device you are using to view the email, and which app you are using to view it. A mailing sent to Gmail will show none of the style characteristics when viewed in a browser on a desktop. It will look fine when you view it using the Mail application on the iPhone, but it won’t if you view it on the same phone using the Gmail app. Here’s a chart showing which email clients accept head tag styles and which do not.

Head tag compatibility chart

The Scalable Alternative

The alternative to responsive design is scalable design, which has been around for a while. This simply means that you design your email so that it is readable on any device, regardless of its size. If the positioning of images and text is critical, those old email standards, tables, are still the safest way to go. Tables don’t scale down very well, so you’ll want to keep the maximum width low—around 650 pixels or less—to ensure that the type is still readable on a phone. Tables also don’t allow the elements to interact with other elements that are not in the same cell, so you won’t get the type reflowing around an image when the window is resized. On the plus side, they are still the most compatible way to control image positioning, and they can be used with responsive design as well.

Div tags may appear to be an attractive alternative, but they are not. They have the advantage of being more flexible, so you can have type flow around an image when the window gets to small for the type and the image to appear side-by-side. And because they don’t scale down like tables, the type stays readable on small devices. But div tags won’t work everywhere, and when they don’t work, it can be a disaster. There is still no consensus on div support, so some email clients support some aspects of divs while others do not. and Hotmail, do not currently support the float attribute, so everything ends up stacked on top of each other. Other email clients, such as Live Mail, ignore the overflow command, which can cause elements to overlap and ruin the layout.

Responsive design may be advantageous in creating email that is optimized across different platforms, but you can’t rely on it in all circumstances. You’ll still need to make sure that your email looks good when the media queries won’t work. The type must remain readable on smaller screens. In some cases, using divs instead of tables can go a long way toward making your email more compatible with devices such as smart phones and tablets, but, as mentioned above, this can lead to even bigger problems, particularly with older client software.

The Automated Approach

You can create responsive designs the old-fashioned way, by entering the HTML code a line at a time, but there are tools that are intended to help simply the process. Dreamweaver lets you use the media queries with the fluid design layouts. This gives you three choices of screen sizes with which to operate. Unfortunately, Dreamweaver automatically includes a Javascript file, which is a taboo in email design. Another program that has been getting a lot of attention lately is Edge Reflow, Part of Adobe’s new Edge series and available through the Creative Cloud. But is Edge Reflow the answer to the problem, or just another layer of complexity? Tune in next week for Part Two: Working with Edge Reflow.

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